This is the "The 6S Pyramid" page of the "Resources for Evidence-Based Practice" guide.
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Resources for Evidence-Based Practice  

Last Updated: May 29, 2015 URL: http://hsl.mcmaster.libguides.com/ebm Print Guide RSS Updates

The 6S Pyramid Print Page
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About This Page

The resources found in the 6S Pyramid contain evidence that will help you answer foreground questions (queries that bring together multiple concepts related to a specific clinical situation or research topic).

Six S Pyramid

The 6S pyramid is arranged in a hierarchy, with the different levels outlined and colour-coded to the right of this page

Use the concepts identified in your PICO or PS Question (found in the Forming Questions tab) to come up with approriate search terms, remembering:

  • A piece of evidence's ability to guide clinical action increases as you move up the pyramid.
  • Topics become more specific as you move down the pyramid.

More Tips

  • Watch HSL's Database Fundamentals Tutorial to learn the basics of effective and efficient searching.
  • Visit the Background Information tab for answers to more general questions (e.g. Terminology, Drug Info, etc.) 
  • Visit the About EBP tab for a more detailed description of the concepts underlying Evidence-Based Practice
 

Off-Campus Access

LibAccess logo

The small lock icon LibAccess lock icon beside a link indicates this is an online library resource. You have to login to LibAccess when off-campus to access the full-text articles and videos. When you click on the resource link from off-campus you'll be redirected to a login page. 

Grey Literature

  • Canadian Health Research Collection  Icon
  • Canadian Public Policy Collection  Icon
  • ProceedingsFirst  Icon
    An index of conference publications from worldwide meetings, conferences, expositions, workshops, congresses, and symposia. Provides an overview of the event's activities by listing the papers presented.
  • Web of Science  Icon
    Contains citation index for conference proceedings.
  • ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I  Icon
    Indexes over 2 million doctoral dissertations and master's theses completed at accredited North American and selected European colleges and universities. Dissertations published from 1980 forward include 350 word abstracts written by the author. Master's theses published from 1988 forward include 150 word abstracts. Includes full-text access to many McMaster theses (send an email to request one). For other institutions, 24 page previews are available. In most cases, this will be graduate works published since 1997.

Additional Information Sources

Citing Sources

 

Systems

Integrating information from the lower levels of the hiearchy with individual patient records, systems represent the ideal source of evidence for clinical decision-making. 

Summaries

Summaries are regularly updated clinical guidelines or textbooks that integrate evidence-based information about specific clinical problems.

Synopses of Syntheses

Synopses of syntheses, summarize the information found in systematic reviews.  By drawing conclusions from evidence at lower levels of the pyramid, these synopses often provide sufficient information to support clinical action.

Syntheses

Commonly referred to as a systematic review, a synthesis is a comprehensive summary of all the evidence surrounding a specific research question.    

Synopses of Single Studies

Synopses of single studies summarize evidence from high-quality studies.   The following evidence-based abstract journals are the best place to find this type of information:

Single Studies

Studies represent unique research conducted to answer specific clincial questions.

  • Article Databases
  • CINAHL  Icon
  • OVID Databases  Icon
    Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO, AMED
    View Tutorial
  • Pubmed  Icon
  • Pubmed Clinical Queries  Icon
    Specialized PubMed searches for clinicians: Search by Clinical Study Category, Find Systematic Reviews, and Medical Genetics Searches. After running one of these searches, you may further refine your results using PubMed's Limits feature. Results of searches on these pages are limited to specific clinical research areas. For comprehensive searches, use PubMed directly.
  • ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source  Icon
  • Health Services Research (HSR) Queries  Icon
  • Clinical Queries
  • The CINAHL, OVID (Medline, EMBASE, PsychINFO), and Pubmed databases can be searched using the Clinical Queries filter, limiting your results to specific clinical research areas: Therapy, Prognosis, Review, Qualitative, and Causation (Etiology)
  • For further information and tips on using the Clinical Queries filter, please visit the following links:
  • Pubmed Clinical Queries  Icon
    Specialized PubMed searches for clinicians: Search by Clinical Study Category, Find Systematic Reviews, and Medical Genetics Searches. After running one of these searches, you may further refine your results using PubMed's Limits feature. Results of searches on these pages are limited to specific clinical research areas. For comprehensive searches, use PubMed directly.
  • CINAHL Clinical Queries
  • OVID Clinical Queries

Meta-Searches

Meta-Searches search for evidence across multiple resources.  These tools return information from all levels of the pyramid:

  • MacPLUS
    MacPLUS Federated Search is designed to find the best evidence-based answer to your clinical questions by simultaneously searching the leading evidence-driven medical publications and high quality clinical literature.
  • TRIP Database
    Turning Research Into Practice
  • Epistemonikos
    Meta-searching in 9 languages.
  • SUMSearch
    University of Kansas
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